Indonesia is home to the second-largest rainforest in the world – second only to Brazil – with about 350 million acres. These forests contain an estimated 4,000 species of trees, 30,000 flowering plant species, 500 species of mammals, more than 1,500 species of birds, and 5,000 varieties of orchids. The flora of Indonesia ranges from the tiny orchid to the giant rafflesia plant—the largest flower in the world (up to three feet across). Many of these plants and animals are only found on these islands. Plants are integral to local life across Indonesia’s many islands. Local people use approximately six thousand species of plants for traditional herbal medicines and for important rituals and ceremonies.
Indonesia’s agricultural products include rubber, coconut, coffee, tea, cocoa, corn, spices, palm oil, tobacco, rice, and an abundance of vegetables and fruit, including more than a hundred types of bananas. The country has some of the richest timber resources in the world and the largest concentration of tropical woods, including teak, pinewood, rattan, and bamboo.